Publications: Software engineering & Metrics


Fenton N.E., & Neil, M. (2018). "Improving Software Testing with Causal Modelling". In R. Kennet, F. Ruggeri, & F. Faltin (Eds.), Analytic Methods in Systems and Software Testing (pp. 27–63). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Fenton, N. E. (2011). "Rational software developers as pathological code hackers" in The Dark Side of Software Engineering: Evil on Computing Projects. (Eds Rost, J. and Glass, R. L.), IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN: 978-0-470-59717-0, pp 264-268

Neil, M., Marquez, D. and Fenton, N. E. (2010). "Improved Reliability Modeling using Bayesian Networks and Dynamic Discretization." Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 95(4), 412-425,

Fenton, N. E., Hearty, P., Neil, M. and Radliński, Ł. (2009). "Software Project and Quality Modelling Using Bayesian Networks Artificial Intelligence" in Applications for Improved Software Engineering Development: New Prospects. (Eds Meziane, F. and Vadera, S. Hershey), New York, USA, IGI Global: Chapter 1,1-25.

Fineman, M., Radlinski, L. and Fenton, N. E. (2009). Modelling Project Trade-off Using Bayesian Networks. IEEE Int. Conf. Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering. Wuhan, China, IEEE Computer Society. 

Radliński, Ł. & Fenton, N., 2009. Causal Risk Framework for Software Projects. In Z. Wilimowska et al. Information Systems Architecture and Technology. IT Technologies in Knowledge Oriented Management Process. Wrocław, Poland: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, pp. 49-59.

Hearty, P., Fenton, N., Marquez, D., and Neil, M., Predicting Project Velocity in XP using a Learning Dynamic Bayesian Network Model. IEEE Trans Software Eng, 2009. 35(1): 124-137.

Fenton, N. E. (2009). Position Statement on the Role and Future of Search Based Software Engineering. 1st International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering. Windsor, UK, IEEE Computer Society: xxii-xxiii.

Radliński Ł , Fenton N E, Neil M, Zarządzaniu II w, "A Learning Bayesian Net for Predicting Number of Software Defects Found in a Sequence of Testing",Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 17 (3B), 359-364, 2008

Fenton, N.E., Neil, M., and Marquez, D., Using Bayesian Networks to Predict Software Defects and Reliability. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O, Journal of Risk and Reliability, 2008. 222(O4): p. 701-712, 10.1243/1748006XJRR161

Fenton, N.E., Neil, M., Marsh, W., Hearty, P., Radlinski, L., and Krause, P., On the effectiveness of early life cycle defect prediction with Bayesian Nets. Empirical Software Engineering, 2008. 13: p. 499-537.

Radliński, Ł., Fenton, N.E., Neil, M., and Marquez, D., Improved Decision-Making for Software Managers Using Bayesian Networks, in 11th IASTED Int. Conf. Software Engineering and Applications (SEA). 2007: Cambridge, MA, USA p. 13–19.

Fenton, N.E. and Neil, M., Managing Risk in the Modern World: Bayesian Networks and the Applications, 1. 2007, London Mathematical Society, Knowledge Transfer Report. 

Fenton NE, Neil M, Marquez D, "Using Bayesian Networks to Predict Software Defects and Reliability", 5th International Mathematical Methods in Reliability Conference (MMR 07), Glasgow 1-4 July 2007


Radliński, Ł., Fenton, N.E., Neil, M., and Marquez, D., Modelling Prior Productivity and Defect Rates in a Causal Model for Software Project Risk Assessment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2007. 16(4A): p. 256-260 


Marquez D, Neil M, Fenton NE, "A new Bayesian Network approach to Reliability modelling", 5th International Mathematical Methods in Reliability Conference (MMR 07), Glasgow 1-4 July 2007


Fenton NE, Neil M,  Marsh W, Hearty P, Krause P, Radliński Ł. , "Project Data Incorporating Qualitative Factors for Improved Software Defect Prediction, ICSE PROMISE 2007   The dataset and model associated with this paper can be found here.


Fenton NE, Neil M, and Caballero JG, "Using Ranked nodes to model qualitative judgements in Bayesian Networks" IEEE TKDE 19(10), 1420-1432, Oct 2007 Neil, M., Fenton, N., and Marquez, D., Using Bayesian Networks and Simulation for Data Fusion and Risk Analysis, in NATO Science for Peace and Security Series: Information and Communication Security, Skanata and Byrd, D.M., Editors. 2007, IOS Press, Nieuwe Hemweg 6B, 1013 BG Amsterdam, The Netherlands


Radliński, Ł., Fenton, N.E., Marquez, D., and Hearty, P., Empirical Analysis of Software Defect Types, in Information Systems Architecture and Technology: Information Technology and Web Engineering: Models, Concepts & Challenges (Proceedings of 28 International ISAT Conference). 2007, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, Wrocław: Szklarska, Poreba, Poland. p. 223-231


Khodakerami V, Fenton NE, Neil M, "Project Scheduling: Improved approach to incorporating uncertainty using Bayesian Networks", Project Management Journal, Jun 2007, Vol. 38 Issue 2, p39-49, 2007


Fenton NE, Neil M, Hearty P, Marsh W, Marquez D, Krause P, Mishra R, "Predicting Software Defects in Varying Development Lifecycles using Bayesian Nets", Information & Software Technology, Vol 49, pp 32-43, Jan 2007


Fenton NE, "New Directions for Software Metrics", Keynote presentation, CIO Annual Symposium on Software Process Improvement, Savoy Hotel, London, 27 Sept 2006.  Pictures  from the event are here and here


Norman Fenton, Łukasz Radliński, Martin Neil "Improved Bayesian Networks for Software Project Risk Assessment Using Dynamic Discretisation,  IFIP Conference Software Engineering Techniques (SET 2006), Warsaw, Poland,  17-20 Oct 2006, in "Software Engineering Techniques: Design for Quality ", pp 139-148, Springer Boston, ISBN 978-0-387-39387-2,


Neil M,  Marquez D, Fenton N, Tailor M, Hearty P, "Modelling Dependable Systems using Hybrid Bayesian Networks", First International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES  2006), 20-22 April 2006, Vienna, Austria


Hearty P, Fenton NE, Neil M, Cates P,  "Automated population of causal models for improved software risk assessment", 20th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, Long Beach, California, USA, November 7-11, 2005, pp 433-435, ACM Press, ISBN: 1-59593-993-4


Fenton NE and Neil M, ''A Critique of Software Defect Prediction Models'',  in Machine Learning Applications in Software Engineering (eds: Zhang D, Tsai JJP), pp 72-86, ISBN 981-256-094-7, World Scientific Publishing Co, 2005


Fenton NE, Marsh W, Neil M, Cates P, Forey S, Tailor T, "Making Resource Decisions for Software Projects", 26th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2004), May 2004, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. IEEE Computer Society 2004, ISBN 0-7695-2163-0, pp. 397-406


Neil M, Krause P, Fenton NE, "Software Quality Prediction Using Bayesian Networks" in Software Engineering with Computational Intelligence,  (Ed Khoshgoftaar TM), Kluwer,  ISBN 1-4020-7427-1, Chapter 6, 2003


Fenton N, Krause P, Neil M, "Probabilistic Modelling for Software Quality Control", Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 12(2), 173-188, 2002


Fenton NE, Krause P, Neil M, "Software Measurement: Uncertainty and Causal Modelling",  IEEE Software 10(4), 116-122, 2002


Fenton NE, "Conducting and Presenting Empirical Software Engineering",  Journal of Empirical Software Engineering 6(3), 195-200, 2001


Neil M, Fenton N, Forey S and Harris R, "Using Bayesian Belief Networks to Predict the Reliability of Military Vehicles", IEE Computing and Control Engineering J  12(1), 11-20, 2001 


Fenton N, Krause P, Neil M, "Software Metrics: Uncertainty and Causal Modelling",. EuroSPI conference, Limerick Institute of Technology, Limerick, 10th-12th October 2001.


Fenton N, Krause P, Neil M, "Probabilistic Modelling for Software Quality Control", Sixth European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty September 19-21, 2001, Toulouse, France.


Fenton NE and Neil M, ''Bayesian belief nets: a causal model for predicting defect rates and resource requirements'', Software Testing and Quality Engineering 2(1), 48-53, 2000


Fenton NE and Neil M, "Software Metrics: Roadmap", in 'The Future of Software Engineering' (Editor: Anthony Finkelstein) 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering, ACM Press ISBN 1-58113-253-0, pp.357-370, 2000


Littlewood B, Strigini L, Wright D, Fenton NE, Neil M, "Bayesian Belief Networks for Safety Assessment of Computer-based Systems",   in System Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Applications (Ed: Gelenbe E), CRC Press, Boca Raton ISBN 0-8493-2357-6, pp 349-364, 2000


Fenton NE and Ohlsson N, "Quantitative Analysis of Faults and Failures in a Complex Software System",  IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 26(8), 797-814,  2000.


Fenton NE and Neil M, ''A Critique of Software Defect Prediction Models'', 25(5) IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 675-689,1999.


Fenton NE and Neil M, ''Software metrics: successes, failures and new directions'', J Systems Software, (47)2-3, pp. 149-157, 1999.


Fenton NE, ''Software Measurement Programs'', Software Testing & Quality Engineering 1(3), 40-46, 1999.


Fenton et al, “The SERENE Method Manual EC Project No. 22187 SERENE (SafEty and Risk Evaluation using bayesian Nets), SERENE/5.3/CSR/3053/R/1, 1999


Finney K, Fenton NE, Fedorec, 'The effects of structure on the comprehensibility of formal specifications', IEE Proceedings of Software146(4), 193-202, 1999.


Fenton NE and Neil M, ''Software Metrics and Risk'', Proc 2nd European Software Measurement Conference (FESMA'99), TI-KVIV, Amsterdam, ISBN 90-76019-07-X, pp 39-55, 1999.


Neil M, Fenton NE and Littlewood B, ''Applying Bayesian Belief Networks to Critical Systems Assessment'', Safety Critical Systems Club Newsletter, 8(3), 10-13, 1999.


Fenton NE, ''Why most software quality metrics do not measure software quality'', Proc 2nd Annual SQI Symp. Austin. Texas, pp28-52, published by Software Quality Institute, the University of Texas at Austin, April, 1998.


Fenton NE and Neil M, A Strategy for Improving Safety Related Software Engineering Standards, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 24(11), 1002-1013, 1998.


Fenton NE, Littlewood B, Neil M, Strigini L, Sutcliffe A, Wright D, ''Assessing Dependability of Safety Critical Systems using Diverse Evidence'', IEE Proceedings Software Engineering, 145(1), 35-39, 1998.


Fenton NE, How to improve safety-critical standards, in 'Safer Systems' (Ed: Redmill F and Anderson T), Proc 5th Ann Safety Critical Systems Symp, pages 96-111, 1997.


Ohlsson N and Fenton NE, 'Experience with data collection in a large scale environment', Proc of 8th Internat Conf on Applications of Software Measurement, Atlanta, USA, October, 157-224, 1997.


Ohlsson N and Fenton NE, 'Let's start testing some basic software hypotheses!', Proc of Workshop on Empirical Studies of Software Maintenance (WESS 97), Monterey, Calif, Nov, 27-29, 1997.


Hall T and Fenton NE, Implementing effective software metrics programmes, IEEE Software, 14(2), 55-66, 1997.


Fenton NE, The role of measurement in software safety assessment, in 'Safety and Reliability of Software Based Systems' (Ed Shaw, R), Springer Verlag, 217-248, 1996.


Neil M and Fenton NE, Predicting software quality using Bayesian belief networks, Proc 21st Annual Software Eng Workshop, NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, 217-230, Dec, 1996.


Neil M, Littlewood B, Fenton NE, Applying Bayesian belief networks to systems dependability assessment, in Proceedings of 4th Safety Critical Systems Symposium, Springer Verlag, 71-93, 1996.


Fenton NE, Critical burden of being correct, Times Higher Education, Sept 13, 1996.


Strigini L and Fenton NE, Rigorously assessing software reliability and safety, Proc Product Assurance Symposium and Software Product Assurance Workshop, 19-21 March 1996, ESA SP-377, May, 1996.


Fenton NE, Do standards improve product quality?, IEEE Software, 13(1), 22-24, Jan, 1996.


Hall T and Fenton NE 1996, Software quality programmes: a snapshot of theory versus reality, Software Quality J, 5(4), 235-242, 1996.


Finney K and Fenton NE, Evaluating the effectiveness of using Z: the claims made about CICS and where we go from here, J Systems Software, 35(3), 206-219, Dec 1996.


Kitchenham BA, Pfleeger SL, Fenton NE, Towards a framework for software measurement validation, IEEE Tans Software Eng 21(12), 929-944, 1995


Fenton NE and Melton A, Measurement theory and software measurement, in 'Software Measurement' Ed: Melton A, International Thomson Computer Press, 27-37, 1995.


Hall T and Fenton NE, Software pracitioners and software quality improvement, 5th International Conference on Software Quality, (published by ASQC), Austin, Texas, 313-323, 1995.


Bieman JM, Fenton NE, Gustafson DA, Melton A, Ott LM, Fundamental issues in software measurement, in 'Software Measurement' Ed: Melton A, International Thomson Computer Press, 39-52, 1995.


Fenton NE, The empirical basis for software engineering, in 'Software Measurement' Ed: Melton A, International Thomson Computer Press,197-217, 1995.


Fenton NE, Pfleeger, SL, Glass  B, "What's wrong with incremental development: a reply", IEEE Software 5(11), p8, 1994


Hall T, Fenton NE,  "Implementing software metrics" 5th International Applied Software Measurement Conference, California, Nov 1994


Fenton NE, Software measurement: a necessary scientific basis, IEEE Transactions Software Engineering, 20 (3), 199-206, 1994.


Pfleeger SL, Fenton NE, Page P, Evaluating software engineering standards, IEEE Computer, Sept, 1994, 71-79, 1994.


Fenton NE, Pfleeger SL, Glass R, Science and Substance: A Challenge to Software Engineers, IEEE Software, 86-95, July, 1994.


Hall T and Fenton NE, Implementing software metrics - the critical success factors, Software Quality Journal 3 (4), 195-208, 1994.


Fenton NE, The effectiveness of software engineering methods, in Proc. AQuIS '93 (2nd Intl Conf on Achieving Quality in Software), 295-305, 1993.


Fenton NE, Objectives and context of measurement and experimentation, in Experimental Software Engineering Issues, (Ed: Rombach DH, Basili VR, Selby RW), Springer Verlag, pp 82-86, 1993.


Fenton NE, Pfleeger SL and Page S, Making your data match your measurement objectives, Proc 4th Intl Conf on Applications of Software Measurement (ASM93) 696-723, 1993.


Fenton NE and Page S, Towards the evaluation of software engineering standards, Proc. Software Engineering Standards Symposium (SESS 93) IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 100--107, 1993.


Fenton NE, Littlewood B, and Page S, Evaluating software engineering standards and methods, in Software Engineering: A European Perspective (Ed: Thayer R, McGettrick AD), IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 463--470, 1993.


Devine C, Fenton NE, Page S, Deficiencies in existing software engineering standards as exposed by SMARTIE, in Safety Critical Systems, (Ed: Redmill F and Anderson T), Chapman and Hall, pp.255--272, 1993.


Fenton NE, Page S, and Devine C, Software engineering standards: evaluation and improvements, Proceedings of the DTI-JFIT Conference, 1993.


Fenton NE, "How effective are software engineering methods?", J Systems Software 20, 93-100, 1993.


Littlewood B, Brocklehurst S, Fenton NE, Mellor P, Page S, Wright D, Dobson, Towards operational measures of security, J Computer Security 2, 211-229, 1993.


Fenton NE, When a sofware measure is not a measure, Software Eng J 7 (5), 357-362, 1992.


Fenton NE , Software measurement: why a formal approach?, in 'Formal Aspects of Software Measurement' (Ed:Denvir, T, Herman R, Whitty RW), Springer Verlag, pp.3--27, 1992.


Bieman J, Fenton NE, Gustafson D, Melton A, Whitty RW, Moving from philosophy to practice in software measurement, in 'Formal Aspects of Software Measurement' (Ed::Denvir, T, Herman R, Whitty R), 1992.


Fenton NE and Kitchenham BA, Validating software measures, J Software Testing, Verification & Reliability 1(2), 27-42, 1991.


Fenton NE, The mathematics of complexity in computing and software engineering, in The Mathematical Revolution inspired by Computing, (Eds. Johnson JH, Loomes M), Oxford University Press, 243-256, 1991.


Fenton NE and Whitty RW, Program structures: some new characterizations, J Computer and System Sciences, 43(3), 467-483, 1991.


Fenton NE and Melton A, Deriving structurally based software measures, J Systems Software 12, 177-187, 1990


Fenton NE, Software measurement: theory, tools and validation, Software Eng J, Vol 5 (1), 65-78, 1990.


Bush M, Fenton NE, Software measurement: a conceptual framework, J Systems Software, Vol 12, 223-231, July, 1990.


Baker AL, Bieman JM, Fenton NE, Gustafson D, Melton A, A philosophy for software measurement, J Systems Software, Vol 12 , 277-281, July, 1990.


Fenton NE and Mole D, A note on the use of Z for flowgraph decomposition, J Information & Software Tech,Vol 30 (7), 432-437, 1988.


Fenton NE and Kaposi AA, Metrics and software structure, J. Information & Software Tech, 301-320, July, 1987.


Fenton NE and Whitty RW, Axiomatic approach to software metrication through program decomposition, Computer J, 29(4), 329-339, 1986.


Whitty RW, Fenton NE, Kaposi AA, Structured programming: a tutorial guide, IEE Software and Microsystems3(3), 54-65, 1985.


Whitty RW, Fenton NE, Kaposi AA,, A rigorous approach to structural analysis and metrication of software, IEE Software and Microsystems 4(1), 2-16, 1985.


Whitty RW, Fenton NE, An axiomatic approach to systems complexity, in Pergamon InfotechState-of-the-art reports: Designing for systems maturity PergamonInfotech Ltd., 113-137, 1985.


Fenton NE, Whitty RW and Kaposi AA, A generalised mathematical theory of structured programming, Theor Comp Sci, 36, 145-171, 1985.


Fenton NE, The structural complexity of flowgraphs, in Graph Theory and its applications to Algorithms and Computer Science Wiley, New York, 273-282, 1985.